A Family Treasure Saved

Haynes_Victor1Some days I am working on a brand new recording to hi resolution digital.  Other days, a recent live to 2 track analog blues record. But today was an interesting experience.

I received a request to transfer records to digital.  Snore.. right that’s not so amazing.  But what I was sent was really cool.

I have transferred and cleaned many 78 rpm records.  They always are a challenge.  The playback turntables of that era were clunky, and since few people owned a lot of 78s, they were usually played a LOT.  This causes all sorts of playback issues, skips. distortion, scratches and pops, and that constant swish of a commercial mass-produced 78.  I have a restoration tool that can reduce many of these unwanted noises, but there is always compromises.  So much so, that I had actually forgotten what a virgin 78 sounded like.

Seventy-Eights are a handful to transfer. There was virtually no playback standard when they were new. Each label used a pre-emphasis EQ, and real collectors had complex setups with different EQs and curves so they could get an accurate playback.  Different width styli were used throughout the years, and if you didn’t use the right size stylus, you would damage the disk even more.

The process of transferring 78s is mostly trial and error, then adjusting the final tone for what appears to be normal.  You can’t guess at this; you really have to have a great ear and good EQs.

So, when I opened up this package I was pleasantly surprised. Inside was a near-virgin 78 record that had been cut on a lathe as a one of a kind record.

Back in the day, small record cutters (disk recorders) existed.  They were used like a tape recorder would be used: to capture a live performance so that it can be played back later.  These particular disks must have been cut and then put away for 60 years.

The transfer went smoothly. There was plenty of surface noise and quite a few pops, but a whole lot less than would be heard on a circulated disk.

Sample 1: Original 78 RPM Recording (1952)

 

Sample 1: Restored by Masterdisk

 

The story behind the story goes like this: After my client’s mother-in-law passed away, the family went through a storage facility where she had her “stuff”.  (George Carlin used to do a routine about how much we like “our stuff”.)  I’m sure there was a lot of mothballs and old lace. But they found in this room, these 3 disks.

What it was was a “studio “ recording of his mother-in-law at the age of 9, playing a series of difficult pieces of music on piano.  She was truly gifted at such a young age.  She announced each song, and at the end stated the year and date and her age.  I was floored.  Just to think that they had survived—probably a hundred different opportunities to be thrown out or forgotten about.

The good part is, these records cleaned up very nicely.  The tools I use to take light ticks and pops off LPs worked great. Then, when I sat back and listened down to the entire performance, I was again shocked at how high fidelity the recording was.  It was at least as full and rich as the best analog tape recorders of the time.

I had one other experience like this: My own grandmother had been shopping in a general store in Tippecanoe, Ohio in 1953, and as she came out, she was greeted by a man—a bread salesman—who had a portable disk recorder. He did a “man on the street” interview with my grandmother and pitched to her the breads from the company who sent him.

Each of her five sons said their Sunday school verse for the recording, and, like magic, years later, there was my father at age 9, and my uncle as an infant, crying in the baby carriage.

This record was cut onto a plastic disk with a thin cardboard core.  The plastic was worn and gave way in spots, but with painstaking care, I managed to put it together and clean it up. I played back the record at a slower speed (because the needle was hopping all over the place).  This disk had been played a lot and was in really poor shape.  I did this restoration about 18 years ago.  The tools for restoration have improved 100 fold since then and are much faster too.

So, even if you aren’t a hoarder, you just might find a funny looking little record in your grandparents attic. Treat it carefully, have it played by a professional, and treat yourself to the time capsule experience.  For fun, I just played this recording from 60 years ago for my two daughters.  They never got me meet my grandmother (or my father for that matter).  I think it’s pretty cool that these recordings have survived.

Sample 2: Original 78 RPM Recording (1952)

 

Sample 2: Restored by Masterdisk

 

 

Lou Pallo’s “Thank You Les” Gets a 10 for Sound at Analog Planet

Michael Fremer at Analog Planet gave Lou Pallo’s “Thank You Les – A Tribute To Les Paul” vinyl a “9” for musical content and a “10” for sound in his recent review. Here’s what Michael had to say:

“The production was all-analog on vintage tube gear that warmed up the CD reviewed here a few months ago, but on vinyl? OMG! Anyone who thinks CDs are “transparent to the source” will surely change their minds hearing this AA recording in its most pure AAA state…”

Read the full review here.

“Thank You Les” was mastered by Alex DeTurk at Masterdisk.

Lou Pallo Thank You Les Album Cover

In addition to the great review from Michael Fremer, “Thank You Les” has earned the titles of “Best Tribute Album” and “Best Long Form Video” in the artist and industry judging portion of the Independent Music Awards, in addition to “Best Tribute Album” in the world-wide voting Vox Populi (People’s Choice).

Here’s an interview with Lou Pallo at The Independent Music Awards site.

Get the vinyl at Elusive Disc.

Fill out my online form.

Don Muro “It’s Time” Reissue Remastered by Alex DeTurk

Coming October 8th, 2013
Limited edition of 500 LPs

“Most lost-classic reissues fit snugly into genre ghettos, but Don Muro’s 1977 masterpiece ‘It’s Time’ defies even our precise 21st-century methods of classification. Rock, funk, synth-pop, disco, ambient, space-age: nothing suffices. It’s funny, it’s solemn, it’s light, it’s shady, it’s sly, it’s earnest, and it’s none and all of the above. Enjoy it ironically and suddenly it gets sublime; take it seriously and soon enough it’s having fun at your expense. I dare you to try to file this one away – chances are it’ll keep poking its head out of your collection, challenging you to figure it all out before it even attracts a speck of dust.” – Marc Masters (Pitchfork, The Wire)

2013 remaster by Alex DeTurk at Masterdisk

From the original 1977 back cover…

“On this album Don plays the following instruments:
ARP Polyphonic Synthesizer System (2600, Odyssey, String Ensemble)
ARP Pro-Soloist
Oberheim Digital Sequencer
Acoustic Piano
Rhodes 73 and 88 Electric Pianos
Hammond RT3 Organ
Electric and Acoustic Guitars
Bass Guitar
Drums and Percussion

Get it at Flannelgraph Records!

Fill out my online form.

BBiB Record Store Day Listening Party Recap

Hope you all had a great Record Store Day this year! We closed our favorite holiday out in style, with a listening party for about 30 new friends here at Masterdisk.

Photo of attendees at Beyond Beyond is Beyond listening party at Masterdisk

The party was one of a continuing series of listening parties organized by Mike Newman of the East Village Radio show and just-launched record label Beyond Beyond is Beyond. And it was a blast.

Two albums were played: Caravan’s “In the Land of Grey and Pink” in Scott Hull’s mastering suite…

Caravan album cover

…and Captain Beefheart’s “Lick My Decals Off, Baby” in Randy Merrill’s room.

Captain Beefheart album cover

We split up into two groups — 15 went to Scott’s room for some Caravan, and 15 to Randy’s for the Captain. Everybody got comfortable and the albums were played — both sides. And here’s the best part: no talking until the needle hits the side 2 runoff groove! It was a pretty fantastic experience to listen to both these records, on great sound systems, in a room full of quietly listening music fans. When the first listening session was done we all took a break before switching rooms to hear the other record.

Lights were provided by Curtis Godino and Chaz Lord of Drippy Eye Projections. The photo below is Randy’s room during one of the Beefheart playbacks.

photo of lights by Drippy Eye Projections

Beverages were provided by our pals down the block (10th Avenue and 45th Street) at The Pony Bar.

We wanted something special for Randy’s room, so we talked to our friends at the downtown NYC hi-fi and record shop In Living Stereo and they graciously let us borrow a Rega RP1. Check out the In Living Stereo showroom:

Photo of In Living Stereo showroom

I know. I want to live there too.

Expert cutting engineer Alex DeTurk did a show-and-tell in the lathe room before the needle dropped:

Alex DeTurk demonstrates the lathe

I’m pictured here with Mike and the evening’s listening selections:

Photo of Mike Newman and James Beaudreau

We didn’t advertise the event very much beforehand because space was limited and the spots filled up very fast. The Listening Party will continue though, and maybe even at Masterdisk again. So definitely keep an eye (ear?) on Mike’s radio show (and check out his label too!). You can listen to archived shows here:

Beyond Beyond is Beyond radio banner

Extra special thanks to Jon Meyers at The Vinyl District for hooking us up with Mike and BBiB.

RSD 2013 Vinyl Cut at Masterdisk

It’s Record Store Day! Hopefully you’ll find the list below “better late than never”. These are the RSD titles that were cut at Masterdisk. As you’ll see, some of them were mastered at the excellent Airshow, Kitchen and Welcome to 1979 studios, and sent to us for cutting. We often partner with other mastering studios in this way. I hope you find something below to seek out and add to your collection!

[table]
Artist,Title,Label,Cutting Engineer,Mastering Studio,Format
Big Mama Thornton,Jail,Vanguard,AlexDeTurk,Airshow,LP
Brendan Benson,Diamond,Readymade,Alex DeTurk,Welcome To 1979,7″
Buddy Guy,Hold That Plane,Vanguard,Alex DeTurk,Airshow,LP
Country Joe and the Fish,Feel Like I’m Fixin To Die,Vanguard,Alex DeTurk,Airshow,LP
Kasey Chambers and Shane Nicholson,Rattlin Bones,Sugar Hill,Alex DeTurk,Airshow,LP
The dB’s,Revolution of the Mind,Orange Sound,Andy VanDette,Kitchen Mastering,LP
Various Artists,Blues at Newport 1963,Vanguard,Alex DeTurk,Airshow,LP
Various Artists,Newport Folk Festival,Vanguard,Alex DeTurk,Airshow,LP
Willie Nelson,Crazy: The Demo Sessions,Sugar Hill,Alex DeTurk,Airshow,LP
Dave Matthews Band,Live Trax Vol 1 Box,Bama Rags Recordings,Scott Hull & Alex DeTurk,Masterdisk,4xLP
Free Energy,Girls Want Rock b/w Wild Life,Free Energy,Jeremy Lubsey,Masterdisk,7″
The Atlas Moth/Wolvhammer,split 7″,Init,Jeremy Lubsey,Masterdisk,7″
Tift Merrit,Markings,Yep Roc,Andy VanDette,Kitchen Mastering,12″
[/table]

Scott Hull on Vinyl, Part Four

Header image for Scott Hull on Vinyl series

One of the most sought after vinyl-cutting systems in the world is the nearly indestructible VMS-70 and VMS-80 cutting systems built by Neumann. The VMS-82 was the last of these produced. I’m thankful to say that we get to use our VMS-82 lathe every day to cut lacquers for clients around the globe. (Fig. 1)

Photo of the Masterdisk lathe
Fig. 1
The actual cutting happens at the cutter head. In this case, the BMW of cutter heads, the SX-74. (Fig. 2)

Though it was initially built in 1974, this design was never dramatically improved. It was capable of cutting with sufficient level and flat frequency response to please nearly everyone.

The head has been removed from the lathe and is sitting upside down for viewing. (Fig. 3)

Now just a little closer look to see the working parts of this little marvel.

Photo of Neumann SX 74 name plate
Fig. 2
The two round “cans” on either side are the voice coils. (Fig. 4) You can also see the cutting stylus: a faceted sapphire glued to a pin that mounts in the tube that connects to each voice coil. Also in the foreground are two fine wires. These carry a small voltage that heats the stylus to an optimal temperature so that it slices smoothly through the lacquer instead of dragging and causing extra noise from a jagged cut.

The drive coils of the stereo cutter head are mounted at right angles. When there is audio in the left channel the left coil goes in and out, just like a speaker does. And when there is audio in the right channel the right coil goes in and out. One voice coil in the cutter head is wired deliberately out of phase so that when a mono signal is cut, as the left coil is moving in the right coil is moving out. Thus, a mono signal cuts a lateral groove that looks like this. (Fig. 5)

Why is this done this way you might ask?

Photo of the Neumann lathe cutter head
Fig. 3
We have go back to mono to find out. Early records, initially 78s and then LPs, were mono. Systems that cut mono records had only one drive coil and it moved the cutting stylus back and forth creating a lateral, constant-depth groove. There was little concern about the depth of the cut so long as it was deep enough to hold the playback stylus in the groove. Then along came stereo. Researchers needed to find a way to carve two channels of audio into a record but make the new technology compatible with mono records and players.

Unfortunately, today’s technology designers don’t put quite so much effort into forward- and backward-compatibility. That’s a soapbox speech for another time.

So what they came up with was to record the mono component of the stereo audio laterally, like on a mono record. Then by adding a second coil and wiring it “out of phase” with the first coil they created depth modulation which records the stereo or side signal.

If I’ve lost you, take a breath and read on; I’ll try to make it clearer.

Photo of Neumann cutter head close up
Fig. 4
Stereo is made up of a left signal and a right signal. OK, that’s simple. But stereo can also be described as the mono component (everything that is exactly the same in both speakers) and the difference component (everything that is different). This is commonly called Middle and Side, or M-S for short. A stereo signal can be converted into an M-S signal and back again with nearly no change at all. FM radio is transmitted in M-S. The middle signal is a strong “full wave” signal and it is this signal that you hear when you are far away from the radio tower. That signal is mono. As you get closer to the radio tower, your radio can tune in the sub carrier signal, which carries the difference (side channel). When you receive a strong enough signal, the FM station now plays back in full stereo because it has BOTH the middle and the side signals. It can be hard to believe, because we commonly think in left-and-right rather than middle-and-side. But it’s true. It’s a matter of physics and alternating current electronics. Are you still with me?

Photo of record groove
Fig. 5
The groove shows us the “difference” signal by it’s depth. So a mastering engineer speaks “lateral” and means the mono aka “middle” signal. And when the engineer says “vertical” he or she is referring to the “difference” aka “side” signals. Got it now? Good.

Once you have a hold of that concept then we can start to talk about why some records seem to make the vocals spitty and sibilant. And why some recordings have to be modified with equalization to minimize out-of-phase bass.

But there is one more thing to understand before we can control our quality. It was a standard developed in the 1950s called the RIAA Curve.

Next week I’ll talk about what the RIAA curve is, why it was standardized, and what steps we have to take to make records sound really good.

(Read all of the “Scott Hull on Vinyl” articles here.)

Fill out my online form.

Scott Hull on Vinyl, Part Three

Header image for Scott Hull on Vinyl seriesAs disk cutting engineers we are always looking at sound. We have a microscope mounted on the record cutting lathe and we use this scope to determine the quality of the cut and to diagnose problems when they occur. We can also measure the groove width and separation between the grooves. The space between the grooves is called “land.”

Photo of quiet record grooves
Fig. 1
So, What do the squiggles mean? Lets look at the record groove closely. Very closely.

In the microscope a simple quiet groove looks like this. (Fig. 1)

There are four grooves in this picture. Each groove looks like three “lines.” The light from the scope lights up the bottom of the groove and the top edges. This is a picture of grooves cut in a fresh lacquer. It’s a very clean and quiet cut. This groove would make a very good sounding – albeit silent record.

When we add music to the picture this is what can happen to our cute little grooves. (Fig. 2)

We can notice the grooves move back and forth and they get fatter and skinnier.

Other things we can notice are that there are large sways in the groove that look a little like sine wave. These are the bass frequencies. Bass frequencies have large wavelengths and when cut they make the groove move in long sweeping curves. They’re so long I can barely get part of a wavelength in one slide.

Photo of record grooves with music content
Fig. 2
We can also see grooves that have tight little squiggles that look something like fish scales (center). These are the higher frequencies. Instruments like a cymbal or trumpet can make the very tight squiggles like those in the middle groove.

These sharp, high frequency squiggles are something we’re constantly dealing with. The sustained bright “S” sound is a particular challenge. In fact, there are so many reasons why “esses” are problematic I’ll devote a whole blog entry to just that.

The goal is to cut a “bright” groove that can still be played back by a standard quality needle and cartridge. If the movements of the groove are too sharp and bright, not all playback cartridges will be able to track the groove accurately. When a needle fails to track the groove you hear a fuzzy sounding distortion. A stiff DJ cartridge—one that is durable and can stand up to scratching and back cue-ing—will often be too stiff to accurately track all those sharp turns. “Hi-fi” cartridges are designed to have the flexibility to track those turns accurately. The trade-off is that they tend to be very delicate, and expensive.

Photo of record grooves
Fig. 3
In Fig. 3 we have cut some sine wave tones so that we can see more clearly the independent movement of the left and right channels.

This is a really interesting slide. It wasn’t easy to get all four grooves in one picture—and it wasn’t edited together in Photoshop, either!

The first groove on the left is a recording of a 4,000 cycle tone (4kHz) in both left and right channels in phase. Since the signal was in phase, the depth of the groove is constant, and you simply see the sine wave wiggles of the left and right walls. The left wall is the left channel; the right wall the right channel.

In the second groove you can notice that the left wall is straight. The left channel is silent and the right channel is playing the test tone on it’s own. Since the two channels are not identical in this example, the groove gets alternately deeper and shallower. This is because the channels are not in phase and it causes the playback needle to rise and fall. Remember that even though there are two channels of audio, there is only one point where the stylus touches the record. The movement of the groove, left and right, up and down, is completely analogous to the movement of the left and right speakers upon playback.

In the third groove both channels are off. This is our silent groove like the first photo above. And then the last groove has audio on the left channel and the right channel is silent. I love this slide—because it clearly displays what motion is shared by both channels and what is independent motion.

Next week we’ll look closely at the cutter head.

(Read all of the “Scott Hull on Vinyl” articles here.)

Fill out my online form.

Scott Hull on Vinyl, Part Two

Header image for Scott Hull on Vinyl seriesHow do we listen to CDs and MP3s? We hear them in the car, while jogging, over computer speakers while we blog (as I am now, listening to yesterday’s mastering project, Dave Matthews), and from the tiny little ear buds plugged into our iPhones.

How do we listen to records? We take the record out carefully, and often we’ll clean it. We double check the tone arm balance and anti-skate, we set the first side on the platter, cue the tone arm and sit back and listen,often playing an entire side, maybe even with our eyes shut.

Columbia Phonograph advertisement, Public DomainIt’s no wonder we have a different relationship with our records than we do with our CDs and computer files. The format engages us on many levels. Records have to be stored and handled carefully or the experience is lost. We’re rewarded with better sound when we spend a little extra time with an anti-stat gun or a record cleaner. The playback sounds nearly the same as it did years ago when we fell in love with music. And I haven’t even mentioned the larger graphics and interesting packaging.

So, I guess I am preaching to the choir, right? All of you understand why you are vinyl junkies. You can justify spending hundreds of dollars on a turntable and pre-amp since it helps you love the music even more. That really is wonderful and I hope all of you have had that experience.

We’ve all heard that the younger generation has rediscovered vinyl. I had a client in my room the other day who told me a story about a young man’s vinyl conversion. A son of a friend of this man was a huge Bob Dylan fan. In fact he believed that he possessed every single downloadable Dylan recording and was very proud of the history and folklore, which he knew by rote.

One day my client invited this friend and his son over to hear his very expensive and detailed record playback system. They left the room for a few minutes to talk, as the son was absorbed in listening to a familiar Dylan record. When they returned they saw he had been crying. And he told them that he had never really heard the album before. It was like everything he knew about Bob Dylan was only on the surface. He had heard the songs a hundred times before, but played back on vinyl it was mind blowing.

Next week I’ll get into the geometry of the record groove. It’s deep!

(Read all of the “Scott Hull on Vinyl” articles here.)

Fill out my online form.

Scott Hull on Vinyl, Part One

Header image for Scott Hull on Vinyl seriesMy name is Scott Hull — I’m the owner of Masterdisk studios in NYC. I’ve been mastering records and cutting lacquers since the early 80s.

In advance of Record Store Day 2013 I will bring you a series of articles just about vinyl. A new one every week until RSD on Saturday, April 20, 2013. I hope you find them to be a fun and informative look at many different aspects of making and enjoying records. We are going to talk about vinyl from all angles: technical, musical and historical. This behind-the scenes-blog will help you understand what goes into making exceptionally good sounding records.

Vinyl Basics

Let’s talk about some basic equipment. The most important piece of audio equipment in my disk cutting room is my ears. Because every single decision I make is based on what I’m hearing, and how that relates to thousands of other records I’ve heard and mastered. Gearheads might be a little disappointed with that statement, but musicians can probably relate.

Turning a recording into a record is very straightforward process. Back in the 40s, there were portable recording rigs that had a microphone and a platter that cut “field recordings” into plastic discs. The machine was marvelously simple. The microphone signal was electrically amplified and caused a cutter head coil to vibrate while it carved through the plastic. The disc was about the size of a 7″ single and played at 78 rpm.

I have one of these discs — it’s a recording of my grandmother and her six young sons outside a grocery store in Tippecanoe, Ohio. The interviewer was selling bread, and asked my grandmother what bread she liked best. Then each son said a Sunday School verse he had memorized. It must have seemed like magic to hear their voices played back on a record. I remember hearing this at a very young age, and marveled at the recording of my father as a 9 year old.

Postcard image of a SoundScriber
The SoundScriber (postcard from The Blog About the Postcards).

Many of these disks were recorded at home and sent overseas to servicemen in war zones. And many came the other way too — carrying the real live voice of their son or husband serving far away.

So, why bring up an obscure dictaphone technology from fifty years ago? I think it’s best to first think of making a record as a very simple process. A process that becomes more complicated as we try to make the recordings better, and longer, and quieter.

When you’re cutting a record, you start with a recording on analog tape, or as a digital file. This recording is converted to an analog voltage, amplified and sent to the cutting head on a lathe. The cutting head is very much like a speaker. When the signal comes into the voice coil, it causes the “speaker” section to vibrate. The Voice coil is attached to a cantilevered shaft and causes a small sapphire needle to wiggle. Each wiggle—left and right and up and down—is analogous to the audio signal being fed in. This sapphire stylus is allowed to contact the surface of a soft lacquer disk and the squiggles are preserved in the plastic. It’s magic.

The reproduction of the signal is just the reverse process—except that the cutter head is designed to dig a small trench in the vinyl, and the playback cartridge is much more delicate and meant to ride along in the groove without damaging it. As the playback stylus rides through the groove, the microscopic squiggles move a coil and the voltage is faithfully reproduced, amplified and routed to speakers for listening.

Next week I’ll take a step back from the technical view and discuss the experience of playing a vinyl record. Over the course of the next few months—leading up to Record Store Day 2013—I hope to touch on many different aspects of the art and science of vinyl. I hope you’ll enjoy the ride.

(Read all of the “Scott Hull on Vinyl” articles here.)

Fill out my online form.

Vinyl, Through the Microscope Looking Glass

For most of my clients and friends, there is nothing quite as cool as looking at the grooves that make a record. To be able to “See” the music, the relationships between high frequencies and lows is just mesmerizing. It looks so simple, yet seems so complex. I know it’s just a waveform display turned sideways, but the fact that it’s tangible and not in a computer helps us connect with the music.

As disk cutting engineers we are always looking at sound. We have a microscope mounted on the record cutting lathe and we use this scope to determine the quality of the cut and to diagnose problems when they occur. We can also measure the groove width and separation between the grooves. The space between the grooves is called “land.”

So, What do the squiggles mean? Lets look at the record groove closely. Very closely.

Fig.1
In the microscope a simple quiet groove looks like Fig.1.

There are four grooves in this picture. Each groove looks like three “lines.” The light from the scope lights up the bottom of the groove and the top edges. This is a picture of grooves cut in a fresh lacquer. It’s a very clean and quiet cut. This groove would make a very good sounding – albeit silent record.

When we add music to the picture this is what can happen to our cute little grooves. (Fig.2) We can notice the grooves move back and forth and they get fatter and skinnier.

Other things we can notice are that there are large sways in the groove that look a little like sine wave. These are the bass frequencies. Bass frequencies have large wavelengths and when cut they make the groove move in long sweeping curves. They’re so long I can barely get part of a wavelength in one slide.

Fig. 2
We can also see grooves that have tight little squiggles that look something like fish scales (center). These are the higher frequencies. Instruments like a cymbal or trumpet can make the very tight squiggles like those in the middle groove.

These sharp, high frequency squiggles are something we’re constantly dealing with. The sustained bright “S” sound is a particular challenge. In fact, there are so many reasons why “esses” are problematic I’ll devote a whole blog entry to just that.

The goal is to cut a “bright” groove that can still be played back by a standard quality needle and cartridge. If the movements of the groove are too sharp and bright, not all playback cartridges will be able to track the groove accurately. When a needle fails to track the groove you hear a fuzzy sounding distortion. A stiff DJ cartridge–one that is durable and can stand up to scratching and back cue-ing–will often be too stiff to accurately track all those sharp turns. “Hi-fi” cartridges are designed to have the flexibility to track those turns accurately. The trade-off is that they tend to be very delicate, and expensive.

Fig. 3
In Fig.3 we have cut some sine wave tones so that we can see more clearly the independent movement of the left and right channels.

This is a really interesting slide. It wasn’t easy to get all four grooves in one picture–and it wasn’t edited together in Photoshop, either!

The groove on the left is a recording of a 4,000 cycle tone (4kHz) in both left and right channels in phase. Since the signal was in phase, the depth of the groove is constant, and you simply see the sine wave wiggles of the left and right walls. The left wall is the left channel; the right wall the right channel.

In the second groove you can notice that the left wall is straight. The left channel is silent and the right channel is playing the test tone on it’s own. Since the two channels are not identical in this example, the groove gets alternately deeper and shallower. This is because the channels are not in phase and it causes the playback needle to rise and fall. Remember that even though there are two channels of audio, there is only one point where the stylus touches the record. The movement of the groove, left and right, up and down, is completely analogous to the movement of the left and right speakers upon playback.

In the third groove both channels are off. This is our silent groove like the first photo above. And then the last groove has audio on the left channel and the right channel is silent. I love this slide–because it clearly displays what motion is shared by both channels and what is independent motion.

Photo of Scott HullOne of my favorite things is sharing my passion for music. And there are few music fans as passionate about their music as vinyl lovers. If you have not given a commercial vinyl release serious thought, you should. Not only is vinyl “buzzy, hip and awesome” it completes the music listening experience for many of us. The large format artwork and the playback process are just some of the factors that make people stop for a moment and listen to the music.

Fill out my online form.